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A Journey into Complete Darkness
Overcoming gaps in the historical record to recreate history. Successfully creating an environment conducive to an immersive reenacting experience requires a great deal of information about the day to day activities of a period. Unfortunately, even relatively recent eras have gaps where such minutiae were not considered significant enough to be recorded, or if they were, in insufficient detail for reenactment. This session will be a hands-on workshop where participants will learn systematic methods by which these gaps can be filled, and then apply them to a particular historical problem, namely the recreation of historical games. Games are an important aspect of making a living history experience complete, and the discussion will go from the general to a specific game famous in the classical world: Poleis, or the Game of Cities.
Speaker: Nicholas Cioran

An Iroquoian Longhouse reconstruction: Finding the Fact within the Fiction
During an experimental archaeology project done at the Baumann site near Orillia ideas and beliefs about Iroquoian longhouse reconstruction were put to the test. Many people would think that we know all that we can about the reconstruction of these structures yet this is far from the truth. I will present the research that I have done, the different step that were needed to be accomplish and the obstacle that needed to be overcome to lead me to the reconstruction of a small section of an Iroquoian longhouse.
Speaker: Jeremie Landry

Bad Handwriting and Funny Names: The Coalbrookdale Papers
Excavations in Coalbrookdale (Shropshire, England) revealed the remains of a medieval building of unknown function, two 17th C steel furnaces, an 18th C malthouse, and 19th through 20th C tenements. To understand these remains required more than archaeology – it required locating, transcribing, sometimes translating, and analysing the many and varied documents relating to the ruins. We will talk about the process, and include several short discussions of particular documents. This will be of interest to anyone who is thinking of chasing down any kind of documentary evidence, be it for family history or writing a novel, or any other purpose. There should be some time available for questions from the floor.
Speakers: Ronald A. Ross, Ph.D., Terrence Saulnier, Josh Cadman

Bead Production in Scandinavia: converting archaeological evidence to a practical method
The 10th century writer Ibn Fadlan assures us that Vikings loved their beads, and archaeological evidence suggests to us that beads were produced in a number of locations in Scandinavia. Unfortunately the Viking Era Scandinavians neglected to document their production methods on YouTube for us. Over the past two years members of DARC have performed a number of basic attempts at bead production. This session will explore the archaeological and anthropological background to bead production; the original questions that were to be explored in the preliminary experiments; tentative conclusions from those experiments; and next steps in the experimental program.
Speaker: Neil Peterson

Beyond the Book of Kells: Ripping off Celtic Motifs
A lecture-style overview of the major 7-10th century works of insular illumination (Lindisfarne, Kells, Durrow etc.), including their socio-political basis, followed by a discussion of the primary illumination motifs and conventions and the dialogue among Celtic art forms. Examples of illumination by the teacher will be on display. A brief practical on simple knotwork will ensue. Bring a piece of paper, a pencil and two markers.
Speaker: Eve Harris

Bone Carving (2 hours)
A hands-on course in early medieval bone carving techniques, focusing on knife work. Each student will work on a 'motif piece' - a type of bone artefact found throughout the Viking world. This course will also give the students an appreciation of the health and safety issues in bone work, an overview of nature and uses of bone and other skeletal materials, and the information they need to pursue further bone carving projects. Bones will be provided at a cost of $5 each. Appropriate knives will be available for use, and can also be purchased at a cost of $15 each. Limited to 6 students. Bone is a hard material, this course is not suited to children.
Class is limited to 6 people.   There is a materials fee of $5 for this class.
Speaker: Steven Strang

Building a Viking Ship Model - A Boat for the Burning
A ceremony of honour and respect for departed warrior, credited to the Norsemen, was the burning or burial of his ship at his death. Most often, it was a cremation, with the dead man's remains on board, though there seems to have been at least one instance in which a ship was buried with no body aboard--perhaps because the man was lost at sea. (Sutton Hoo Burial) In the SCA, we have begun an annual tradition of burning a boat in miniature, in memory of all those departed from among us. The ship is built in 1/12 scale, and, through its yearly incarnations, is slowly evolving to become closer to the style of construction of the true Viking longship. This class is a lecture on the problems and procedures used in the ship's construction. It should be of help to those wishing to create models of their own, or simply of interest to those wishing to learn of longship construction.
Speaker: Gary Snyder

Building the Coppergate Helm
A discussion of the instructor's creation of a helm based on the find at Coppergate, York. A brief discussion of existing Anglo-Saxon helms and mail will be followed by a review of the step-by-step process of building a modern example.
Speaker: Mila Little

Chainmail - Beyond the Basics (2 hours)
Beyond the basics: mail is the most versatile, flexible armour ever developed. Able to be shaped to every part of the human form mail can also be the basis for wonderful jewelry. In this class you will learn how to make the King Chain, French Rope, and Foxtail patterns. A basic understanding of chain mail is required. Bring two pairs of pliers. In addition to more complex patterns with standard rings this session will explore the use of smaller rings and precious metal rings in decorative patterns and jewelry. Bring two pairs of pliers.
Speaker: Jerry Penner

Chainmail for Beginners
Imagine a shirt made of thousands of tiny metal rings, all linked together to form a cloth impenetrable by sword. Why was chainmail the ultimate armour for warriors for over a thousand years? Chain mail is so versatile it is still in use today. You can see it on divers in shark-infested waters and on the hands of your local butcher. While you learn to knit your own bracelet that you get to take home we'll discuss the historical background of this wonderful armour. Please bring two pairs of pliers.
Speaker: Jerry Penner

Clothing in 13th Century Spain
A look at the clothing of 13th century Iberia . During this time the area we now call Spain was a collection of different kingdoms and cultures. This class will look at the resulting variety of styles, some of which seem to be unique to the area. Samples of reconstructed garments will be available to examine and the construction of the garments will be discussed as time and interest allows.
Speaker: Laura Stein

Coptic Clothing
This session is an overview course looking into the development of Coptic textile manufacturing and the clothing style of the early medieval, eastern Mediterranean peoples. The common history and trading strength of this area gave rise to a unique and interesting method of textile production whose distinct style influenced fashion throughout the region, to Rome and beyond. Production techniques, style, history, social influences and economics and their influence on fashion and textiles will be discussed.
Speaker: Larisa Kallaur-Telford

Costuming Research (1000 - 1800 A.D)
Not sure where to start researching that costume? Come learn how to do research using traditional library search techniques and some not so traditional ways.
Speaker: Amy Menary

Dances from Tudor England (Gresley Dances)
Dating from around 1500, the Gresley dances are the earliest known English dances. Rediscovered in 1996, these are fun, easy dances for groups of two and three. No prior dance experience is necessary.
Speakers: Richard Schweitzer, Sarah Scroggie

Egg Tempra Painting (2 hours)
Before the use of linseed oil as a binder in painting, there was Egg Tempera. I describe Egg Tempera as a transitional medium because it has become esoteric in the modern art world because of the limitations that it has. Egg tempera is a glazing medium which has great luminosity but extreme fragility. Creating a painting in egg tempera is a meditative process. As the medium requires multiple glazes in order to acheive a successful result, it is not expected that students will complete a work during the session. Usually a finished work has in excess of 15 layers to build colour and texture. The focus of the session is to give students a 'hands on' experience with painting in this medium. A course fee of $5 applies in order to cover the cost of a surface and pigments. Students who have their own brushes should bring short bristled 'Bright' brushes (sizes 00 - 4) that have not been used for other media. Some loaner brushes will be available. I will provide the eggs. A baby food jar or similar small jar capable of ensuring a seal will allow students to take a sample of the painting medium. Students who possess dry pigments of their own should bring them, gouache and watercolour pigments are also useful.
There is a materials fee of $5 for this class.

English Country Dance
Come learn the "Plaine and easie Rules for the Dancing of Country Dances" as Playford recorded them in 1651. We'll look at three 3 couple dances, All in a Garden Green, Picking of Sticks, and Jenny Pluck Pears.
Speaker: Brent McCrackin

Feet firmly in the past - Shoes from the Viking Age 800 - 1050
Taking examples from Viking Age artefacts from England, Norway, Denmark, and Germany, this session will present an overview of the styles, methods of construction, materials, and likely wearers of shoes at the end of the first millennium in Northern Europe. A simple method of pattern making will be demonstrated as well as the more common stitches employed during shoe construction. If time allows, attendees will be guided through the process of producing shoe patterns of their own.
Speaker: Marcus Burnham

Finnish women's clothing from excavation to interpretation
This lecture will look at various reconstructions of Viking-era and early Medieval Finnish women’s clothing based on excavations of various grave sites, and the remains therein. This will cover various textiles used, construction, colour, and ornamentation, as well as a discussion of some external influencing factors.
Speaker: Sarah Backa

Flemish Costume: The Sum of its Parts
16th century Flemish market-class clothing is ideal for those seeking practical garb; its many pieces allow one to be more or less formal, cooler or warmer, and gaudier or more plain as the wearer desires. Attendees will be introduced to the elements of Flemish costume through both male and female live models. Models will be used to bring genre paintings from the time period by such artists as Pieter Aertsen and Joachim Beuckelaer to life, and the role of social position and occupation in the construction and use of these garments will be discussed.
Speaker: Pamela Bottrill

Flint and Steel Fire Striking
Learn how to build a fire, and light it using flint and steel. This will be a hands on course, where you'll get to try the techniques and practice making fire. Note that this involves "real fire", so breathing smoke and burning your fingers are potential dangers.
Speaker: Mark Patchett

Gypsies in Portraiture: Truth or Fiction?
Throughout history, depictions of Gypsies have often been more iconic than factually based. While it is likely that, especially, pictorial representations were based on some small shred of truth, often they were exaggerated to suit both the artist's taste and meet the needs of a mostly illiterate public. This lecture will illustrate the common perceptions of Gypsies in the late medieval period with regards to their appearance, both as depicted in art and documents of the time. Recognition of the biases against Gypsies, as well as authenticity issues in documentary evidence as well as in art will also be discussed.
Speaker: Karina Bates

Habits of mind; How tools affect thinking
Did Hindu-Arabic Numerals Create Innumeracy?
Abaci and counting boards were the dominant computing technology of the later Middle Ages. By 1600, these had been supplanted by written computation. While this change made it easier for trained reckoners to perform division, it also rendered addition and subtraction too arcane for the uneducated.
Viking age seams and stitchwork; how tools determine the production decisions.
The needle and thread are the basic tools used to make clothing from cloth. Viking age needles and thread are significantly different from modern types, and also from later medieval ones. These differences leave traces in the stitchwork that can be noticed on old seams, which can potentially confirm guesses about the properties of ancient tools. Having a knowledge of the way historically accurate tools worked can in turn lead to better quality reconstructions, even when modern tools are used in the actual production, or when specific questions cannot be answered from archaeological evidence.

Speakers: V.M. Roberts, Cary Timar

History in Video Games
This session will be moderated by Dr. Ron Ross. As a member of a successful modification community dedicated to bringing historicity and accuracy to video games James will be speaking on the problems involved in being accurate and true to history while maintaining a strong game in gameplay and producing a game quickly. He will first touch, after a brief introduction, on the issue of the effort required to render history accurately in games visually, storywise and action wise (interactions, movements, etc...). Second he will discuss areas where a small amount of effort can make the difference between an acceptable representation and terrible inaccuracy. Thirdly he will look into gameplay and the importance of making a playable game in spite of clashes between this and history. Finally he will discuss the problem of creating good games quickly and selling them to the modern audience.
Speaker: James Diamond

How Holy is War?
There has existed numerous causes for war over the course of the past but there is one cause that has been consistently controversial, destructive, and enduring throughout the ages. This lecture will examine how religion has influenced the waging of war throughout history from the Revolt of the Maccabees to the Thirty Years War and what common factors prevail in religious warfare.
Speaker: Simon Newcombe

Iceland - Geography & Museums
Formatted as a travelogue of a trip around Iceland, this session will provide the audience with a look at photographs of various saga valleys and the overall stunning geographic landscape in which the Vikings might have found themselves. As well, the presenters will look at several museum and re-enactment sites, commenting on the variety of presentation styles. This session may provide useful background information for those interested in Viking Era Iceland.
Speakers: Neil Peterson, Karen Peterson

Inns of Court
Learn the dances required of all gentlemen laywer to learn and dance, these dances are easy and simple. Note: many men remain laywers long past normal dancing days so thses dances are simple and easy enough for anyone, but fun and flirty for the younger croud if they wish.
Speaker: David Learmonth

Intermediate Glass Beads "The fancy stuff"
This is a demonstration and discussion class for intermediate glass bead makers. No beginners, please. We will have demonstrations on millifliori, stringer making, applying stringers, etc. Techniques such feathering, dots and lines will also be discussed. Discussion will be on what the Vikings used and how they did it, however, we will be using a modern lampworking torch.
Speaker: Jean Ross

Intro to 15th Century Italian Dance
Open to all, no partners required. We'll look at a few fun dances from Italy: Petit Vriens, Gelosia, and a few others depending on time and numbers of people
Speaker: David Learmonth

Introduction to Drop Spinning (2 hours)
This is a hands-on class for beginners where you'll learn the basics of spinning wool on a drop spindle to produce single-ply yarn. Beginner drop spindles (either an adjustable spindle made from recycled CDs, or a low-whorl wooden spindle) will be available for $5, or participants can bring their own spindle if they have one (top whorl, bottom whorl or turkish, whatever you have is fine). I will supply roving and a handout. Students who attend the Introduction to Fibre Prep class will have a chance to prepare their own rovings for this class, but it's not necessary to attend the Fibre Prep class to attend the spinning class. Class is limited to 10 participants, but observers are welcome. Materials fee is for those who want to purchase a spindle kit.
Class is limited to 10 people.   There is a materials fee of $5 for this class.
Speaker: Bridget Jankowski

Introduction to Fibre Prep for Spinning
This is a hands-on class in preparing fleece (already washed, but otherwise straight from the sheep) for drop spinning using hand cards and several styles of wool combs. I'll discuss and demonstrate worsted and woolen preparation, and the class will prepare their own rolags and rovings. Niddy noddies, notepinnes and dizzes will also be discussed as we go. For those planning to take Intro to Drop Spinning as well, this workshop is intended to teach you to prepare wool for the later workshop, however, anyone is welcome, even if you don't plan to take Drop Spinning. Fleece will be provided (white, Dorset cross, no charge). If you have hand cards or combs, please bring them as supplies are limited, though some loaners from kind souls will be available. Due to this, class is limited to 10 participants (more if people bring their own tools), but observers are more than welcome.
Class is limited to 10 people.   
Speaker: Bridget Jankowski

Introduction to Mead Making
Mead is a honey based fermented alcoholic drink. This session will provide an introduction to the world of mead and an open discussion of use of alcohol in the middle ages in general. During the class a batch of mead will be made and each participant will go home with a bottle of mead in the process of fermenting. This class is restricted to those 19 and older (no there won't be any drinking).
Class is limited to 10 people.   There is a materials fee of $5 for this class.
Speaker: Jeff Johnston

Introduction to Tablet Weaving (2 hours)
This is a hand's on practicum where participants will be taught the basics of tablet weaving. Tablet weaving is a narrow-band weaving technique that is commonly used for belts, straps and decorative edging on clothes. The technique (also known as card weaving) developed independently in a number of countries and has been used for over a thousand years. Participants will learn how to string their own bands and will learn a variety of pattern techniques.
There is a materials fee of $12 for this class.
Speaker: Rob Schweitzer

Iron Smelting in Vinland: converting archaeological evidence to a practical method
The excavations at L'Anse aux Meadows Newfoundland uncovered remains interpreted by the original excavation team as a 'Furnace Hut' and an iron smelting furnace. The remains are fragmentary, and at best only represent the last stages of a complex physical sequence. What might this furnace have looked like, and exactly how might the smelting process have been undertaken by the Norse, 1000 years ago? As well as considering furnace remains from Norway and Iceland, practical experience derived from a long series of experimental iron smelts will be assessed.
Speaker: Darrell Markewitz

Italian Dance for English Country Dancers
Two dance based on the work of Caroso, adapted by Mary Railing (Mistress Urraca of the SCA) to make them accessible and fun for all. Dances will initially be taught using simple walking steps to learn the figures. Time permitting, Italian Renaissance steps will be shown for those who are interested.
Speaker: Marc Collins

Japanese cooking (2 hours)
This class will give a brief history of Japanese food and the participants will learn how to cook a few dishes from the between 600 and 1600 AD and will then have an opportunity to sample the foods.
Class is limited to 15 people.   There is a materials fee of $3 for this class.
Speaker: Brendan Smith

Large Menu Planning
A practical guide to planning a large menu. Whether it is for a Wedding, Banquet or Medieval Feast using numbers as small as 12 to as large as 200. Budgeting, food choices, seating arrangements and the like for your situations will be discussed. Bring a thumb drive or accessible email for worksheets to be given to participants.
Speakers: Jean Ross, Martin Ross

Meaningful Scratches
A hands-on course in Runic and Ogham writing. The Runic alphabets were the local forms of writing in the Viking, Anglo Saxon and other Germanic cultures. Ogham was an alphabet peculiar to the Celtic inhabitants of the British Isles. Both were developed to be written with a knife rather than a pen. Participants should bring a small, sharp, single-edged knife, wood will be provided and some loaner knives will be available. No woodworking experience necessary, but children must be accompanied by a parent or guardian.
Class is limited to 10 people.   
Speaker: Steven Strang

Non-Stop Dance Workout
A fast paced session where we will do as many Renaissance and English coutnry dances as possible in one hour. Everyone with experience calling dance can lead the class in turn but nothing will be taught formally. This is an excellent opportunity to survey many dances from all periods and challenge level and expand one's repertoire. Recommended for intermediate or advanced dancers, though beginners are very welcome, specially if they enjoy a challenge or like to watch semi-organized chaos.
Speaker: Marc Collins

Norse Music
Did the Vikings sing when they rowed? Could Thorsteinn carry a tune? This lecture will introduce the instruments played by the Norse and demonstrate some of what remains of their musical traditions.
Speaker: Richard Schweitzer

Norse Sagas - the Bloody, Bawdy and Bizarre
Written in the 13th and 14th centuries, the sagas provide a unique glimpse into the lives of the Norse people, their beliefs and customs. The sagas also record gory tales of slaughter, sexual exploits, and some of the strangest tales ever set to paper. This class is a survey of the bawdy, bloody, bizzare world of the Norse sagas and is not suitable for all listeners. Audience discretion is advised.
Speaker: Richard Schweitzer

Not Just Costume - Reenactors as serious historians
Reenactment—accurate portrayal of the past—can be serious history. Reenactors are often viewed—by the general public, by professional historians, and even by themselves—as a "fringe culture" or as dress-up societies with little to contribute to serious academics or even mainstream cultural historians, but nothing could be further from the truth. Mr. Cameron will use examples from recent reenactment groups across North America and Europe to illustrate how reenactors can directly serve the needs of the academic community while improving their own knowledge base and their own fun—mostly through improved communications with mainstream historians. Examples will run from the macro—the recreation of the Trireme Olympia, to the micro—the solving of the "Clay Pipe Mystery." Historians as great as Victor Davis Hanson (arguably North America’s most famous ancient historian) argue that "I no longer entirely believe in the traditional scope and presentation of much of academic research in the humanities… nor do I have much confidence in the methods accompanying that inquiry. In their present evolved forms, these scholarly practices deliberately limit, rather than encourage, access to history." He goes on to suggest that it is passionate amateurs are the future hope of history as a discipline—and he recommends reenactors. Mr. Cameron will attempt to show how disciplined, educated approaches to carefully limited historical problems can yield immediate results and win reenactors well-merited academic support, and will close with some thoughts on immersion reenacting, or attempts to recreate cultural reality for more than a few minutes at a time. Experimental archaeology can start at your loom or in your kitchen or in your salle-d'armes—but how far can you take it?
Speaker: Christian Cameron

Out on the town in 10th century Reykjavik: a survey of jewelry, dress and textiles in early Iceland
The Vikings settled Iceland in 873 AD bringing with them Scandinavian culture and cultural traits. What did these people wear and how did dress express the social and cultural identity of these Scandinavian settlers? Using burial data sets from Iceland’s Viking period and recent textile finds from the site of Gilsbakki an elite farm in Western Iceland, this paper will address, among other things, the social and gender roles in Norse society expressed through body concealment and the body’s intentional manipulation with the use of jewellery, adornment and textiles. It will also discuss experimental trials conducted on Norse oval brooch production in an attempt to shed light on the ongoing debate of local Icelandic jewellery production. This paper is based in part on preliminary research undertaken in 2008-2009 with funding from the National Science Foundation looking at issues of dress, gender and textiles.
Speaker: Michèle Hayeur Smith, Ph.D.

Pottery: An experimental early-period Pit Fire
In the fall of 2009, an attempt was made to replicate the methodology behind firing clay in Northern Europe in the early medieval age. At this time, in some, but not all areas, a pit fire was used to harden (largely hand-built) pottery items to a usable temper. This type of fire could easily have started as a very hot cooking or bonfire and this process could certainly have been used (with limited success) on a casual household basis. The experiment attempted in the fall of 2009 was meant to replicate an intentional production fire with many pieces. The lecture will focus on the goals and process of this experiment, as well as the results. An extrapolation of this experiment in historical terms will also be discussed.
Speaker: Karina Bates

Practical Embroidery (2 hours)
This two hour session is to teach decorative embroidery design and stitch technique beginning with simple stitches in the first session and moving up through more advanced techniques in the second hour. Students are asked to provide material and a fabric hoop or frame for practice. A variety of needles and embroidery thread will be provided in class.
Speaker: Larisa Kallaur-Telford

Redacting Theolphilus
An introduction to the 12th century craftsman's manual On Divers Arts by Theophilus. This class will concentrate on the chapters on metalworking, placing the contents into a modern scientific perspective. The instructor will discuss her experiments into recreating some of his technique descriptions such as for solder, flux, and enamelling.
Speaker: Mila Little

Repeating Celtic Knotwork designs (2 hours)
George Bain's "Celtic knotwork: the means of construction" is an introduction as to how to reproduce extant celtic knots and zoomorphs. Underrstanding how to use the principles and geometry that are enshined in his book is a means to creating 'original' knots and zoomorphs. Students taking this course should bring their own paper and a pencil, drawing instruments such as a ruler and good quality compass are highly recommended, but I will have some stuff to lend. I will be teaching this session based on works I have done, and demonstrating how to create 'repeats' of design elements.

Run for fear, spring cleaning's here! Victorian approaches to housework.
It's spring, the time when every Victorian housewife's mind turns to cleaning. Up come the carpets, down with the curtains and even the marital bed is out on the front lawn "airing"! Supper is delayed and husbands hide away in taverns. What is it really all about? This is a light-hearted introduction to the Victorian cleaning regime based on period advice manuals and diaries.

SCA Armoured Combat Demonstration
Come and watch as brave Knights, Squires and Men at Arms do battle in a Medieval Tournament. This will be a display of armoured combat, by the Society for Creative Anachronism. We will spend some time looking at the weapons and armour we use for tournament combat, and discuss how combat works in the SCA. There will be a chance for the spectators to come have a closer look at the arms & armour involved.
Speaker: Mark Patchett

Setting the Scene: Interpretive Methods for Living History
There are a number of decision points any re-enactor must make in selecting a historic period of interest, creating a character, then equipping themselves. Museum programs and established living history groups often have authenticity standards which are based on principles that are poorly understood. How do problems with artifact prototypes, maintaining uniform standards, even odd factors like local building codes (!) relate to how you may present yourself to the public? This illustrated and free ranging discussion will attempt to detail some of the underlaying theories, using the upcoming presentation by the Dark Ages Re-creation Company at L'Anse aux Meadows NHSC for concrete examples.
Speaker: Darrell Markewitz

Stepping through Time: shoes from 1600-1900
The evolution of the shoe from the 1600's to 1900, with an emphasis on shoe technology, shoe making and cobbling in the period 1775 - 1830. A demonstration of early nineteenth century shoe construction and repair, with some tips on do-it-yourself shoe construction and simple repairs to period shoes. This demonstration will begin with an historical survey from medieval and Renaissance footwear through the development and nature of the lasted shoe in of the early modern period and finish with a brief look at the machine made shoe of the latter 19th and 20th centuries. Samples of a simple medieval style turn shoe under construction and of machine stitched modern shoes will be shown and the construction of a pegged 'stack heel' and a pegged sole handmade shoe will be demonstrated.
Speaker: Peter Monahan

Tablet Woven Artefacts
This session will provide an historical overview to the various techniques used in tablet weaving. The analysis of artefacts and their re-construction will also be discussed. Participation in the Introduction to Tablet Weaving practicum or a knowledge of weaving terminology is useful, but not essential for this class.
Speaker: Rob Schweitzer

The Archaeology of Caribbean and Atlantic Piracy
Caribbean piracy has long been the stuff of movies, legends, and imagination. Captured in history books it portrays a fascinating narrative on one of the largest counterculture movements in history and the lives of some of the most colourful mariners of all time. However, these is only so much that historical documents can provide in terms of understanding the daily life of these individuals. This lecture looks at a different approach in exploring the past, archaeology, and tries to summarize the work that has been done in excavating both land and underwater sites and draw conclusions from these works about piracy and the future of archaeology in this fascinating area of study.
Speaker: Anatoly Venovcev

The End of an Empire
Collapsing Empire and Regime Legitimacy: The Shift from "Bread and Circuses" to Coersion in the Roman Empire, 27 BCE – 364 CE
Governments in complex societies generally maintain themselves by some mix of two means: securing the loyalty of the population through benefits (or bribes), or through coercive means. This observation remains as true today as it was during the last civilization that cast a long shadow over world history: the Roman Empire. This presentation offers a chronological series of observations regarding the evolution of the efforts of the central state in the Roman political system from the reign of Augustus to that of Julian the Apostate (27 BCE – 364 CE) to maintain its legitimacy either through subsidies and public works, or through coercive measures imposed upon Roman subjects. Evidence suggests that Augustus employed a careful mix of coercive and generous measures to ensure the legitimacy of the radical political change he introduced. The time of prosperity that followed was generally characterized by public munificence (with some notable exceptions), while the later centuries saw ever more repressive measures employed to keep intact an increasingly sclerotic political structure. This presentation suggests that the reason for this shift lies in the availability of resources: during times of abundance, governments are more likely to ensure their continuance via peaceful means, while the competition fueled by resource scarcity leads to the use of ever-greater repression. The cycle of decline breaks down when insufficient resources remain to maintain the repressive measures, at which point the government dissolves into terminal ineffectiveness, is dismissed as irrelevant and is then simply forgotten.
The Evolution of the Roman Frontier and its Consequences for the Mediterranean
The Roman Empire, like many other complex and multi-strata civilizations in human history, has been characterized by an inherently unsustainable movement toward higher levels of complexity, specialization, and sociopolitical control. In order for any complex society to thrive, energy supply and energy demand must evolve at roughly the same rate. When a society’s investments in complexity begin to yield smaller returns, more resources are invested with the (incorrect) expectation that the return will correspondingly increase. This reciprocal relationship, the theory of ‘marginal productivity’, is used to interpret the rapid territorial decline of Rome as it relates to the collapse of the Empire as a whole. While Rome’s collapse was certainly provoked by a combination of factors, it is best understood and more easily quantified when expressed in terms of the amount of territory held and the rate at which these holdings were lost. Such drastic territorial fluctuations are symptomatic of Rome’s mismanagement and exploitation of the Empire’s energy resources because when expansion was no longer possible, territories were lost and the process of collapse was accelerated as a result. When considering how the amount of surface area controlled by an empire affects its power, it becomes clear that the two values are neither reciprocal nor mutually exclusive but affect each other indirectly. In short, the amount of area controlled becomes only one of many expressions of power.

Speakers: David Porreca, Ph.D., Laura Roncone

The Lost Cathedral: Exploring Cluny in 3 Dimensions
Cluny Cathedral was one of the most stunning architectural achievements of the 12th century, and the jewel in the crown of possibly the most politically influential monastic order of the Middle Ages. Sadly, it was destroyed in the 18th century; however, we can explore it today through 2-D and 3-D representations. This class will explore Cluny Cathedral through the use of a 3-dimensional interactive teaching model, as well as slides and handouts. Basic elements of medieval church architecture will be identified, and the connection of this building to the philosophy, music and politics of its day will be described.
Speaker: Pamela Bottrill

The importance of excellence in material culture
A good deal of our daily lives are defined by the clothes we wear and the objects we handle. This has been true throughout the ages. In our forays into historical reenactment, it is crucial to try to correctly and exactly recreate the material culture of the time which we are representing. This allows us to more effectively understand how people in the past would have interacted with the physical world around them. We as reenactors attempt to get the closest we can to the mindset of people in the past. To do this we have to work diligently to replicate the physical environment in which they would have lived. Commitment to craftsmanship and continuous attention to detail can allow us to reach higher levels of understanding of the way people may have lived throughout history. In her talk Aurora Simmons will look at the recreation of material culture in general and more specifically discuss the manufacture of 18th century men's shirts and the Ancient Greek Hoplite shield known as the aspis, the research, the mistakes, the breakthroughs, and the careful interrelation between craft and intellect.
Speaker: Aurora Simmons

Three fingers hold the pen... (2 hours)
"Three fingers hold the pen, but the whole body labours" - a calligraphy and illumination demo and workshop.
These words describe well the world of the calligrapher, indeed any craftsman, who bends to his work, spending long hours often in discomfort, yet produces work of great beauty. This session will examine this aspect of the artisan's working process, a demonstration of the use of period tools and materials, followed by the classes' creation of an exemplar using modern materials. (An exemplar is a sample of text and possibly an illuminated capital used for copy work and to learn the handling of letterforms.) The session will examine the carolingian miniscule hand, and simple rubric illumination in the style of an english manuscript c.1300. The object will be to develop the qualities of the eye and the hand performing in tandem. The class will be exhorted to follow the hand and styling of the exemplar provided: it is by observation and direct copy that the basics are best learned.
Speaker: Scott Caple

Treasure Necklaces
Come learn about the Hon, Norway treasure necklace. What makes it so important and what parts constitute a "Treasure Necklace". Afterwards make a treasure necklace for yourself. Bring your beads and odd bits of metalwork, pendants, etc. Materials will be available to help you with your necklace. Children over 8 welcome with a participating parent. (If younger, please speak with the instructor)
There is a materials fee of $5 for this class.
Speaker: Jean Ross

Tree of Life - Myth & Symbolism (2 hours)
The Tree of Life or World Tree has appeared in myths, stories and legends around the world since ancient times. During this workshop, you will discover the diverse cultural references to the tree of life throughout the ages, while creating your own unique pendant to take home with you. Your kit will contain everything you need, including your choice of gemstone chips (peridot, citrine, amethyst, quartz) and a colour printout of the instructions.
Class is limited to 10 people.   There is a materials fee of $10 for this class.
Speaker: Bonnie Coursolle

Viking Combat Demonstration
Watch a display of reenactment style combat by members of Regia Anglorum and The Vikings. Sometimes called "Live Steel" combat -- this involves blunt steel weapons and authentic looking armour, as would have been used by Normans, Saxons and Vikings around 1000 years ago.
Speakers: Mark Patchett, Ilya Shkarupin

Viking Navigation Techniques
In 30 years of sailing with the Longship Company the speaker has become interested in navigational techniques that were (or may have been) used by the Vikings. There is little hard documentation or archaeological evidence, so the field is full of speculation. This session will discuss some of these speculations including two items for which there is at least a little evidence: the Viking sun-compass and the "sunstone".
Speaker: Fred Blonder

Warp Weighted loom - a Hands-On Introduction (2 hours)
The warp weighted loom dates from the Swiss Neolithic Age to as recently as the last century in Norway. The weaver beats upwards, and the unused warp below is held under tension by tied on weights. This workshop will briefly cover the history and provide some references for further research, and then will jump right into a hands on introduction to the many stages of setting up a warp and weaving on a warp weighted loom. Warping a loom is a very time consuming activity, but weaving is great fun.
Class is limited to 10 people.   
Speaker: Karen Peterson

Who were the Samurai?
This session will cover the history of Japan's most popular warrior, from their origins up until the end of the Sengoku Jidai, the Golden Age of the Samurai.
Speaker: Brendan Smith

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